|Title||Inference of the phase-to-mechanical property link via coupled X-ray spectrometry and indentation analysis: Application to cement-based materials|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2015|
|Authors||Krakowiak KJ, Wilson W, James S, Musso S, Ulm F-J|
|Journal||Cement and Concrete Research|
|Pagination||271 - 285|
A novel approach for the chemo-mechanical characterization of cement-based materials is presented, which combines the classical grid indentation technique with elemental mapping by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS). It is illustrated through application to an oil-well cement system with siliceous filler. The characteristic X-rays of major elements (silicon, calcium and aluminum) are measured over the indentation region and mapped back on the indentation points. Measured intensities together with indentation hardness and modulus are considered in a clustering analysis within the framework of Finite Mixture Models with Gaussian component density function. The method is able to successfully isolate the calcium-silica-hydrate gel at the indentation scale from its mixtures with other products of cement hydration and anhydrous phases; thus providing a convenient means to link mechanical response to the calcium-to-silicon ratio quantified independently via X-ray wavelength dispersive spectroscopy. A discussion of uncertainty quantification of the estimated chemo-mechanical properties and phase volume fractions, as well as the effect of chemical observables on phase assessment is also included.
|Short Title||Cement and Concrete Research|