Transient granular flows, such as rock falls, debris flows, and aerial and submarine avalanches, occur very often in nature. In the geotechnical context, transient movements of large granular slopes are a substantial factor of risk due to their destructive force and the transformations the y may produce in the landscape. This paper investigates the ability of MPM, a continuum approach, to reproduce the evolution of a granular slope destabilised by an external energy source. In particular, a central issue is whether the power-law dependence of run-out distance and time observed with respect to the initial geometry or energy can be reproduced by a simple Mohr-Coulomb plastic behaviour. The effect of base friction on the run-out kinematics is studied by comparing the data obtained from the DEM and MPM simulations. The mechanism of energy dissipation is primarily through friction and the MPM is able to predict the run-out response in good agreement with the DEM simulations. At very low excitation energies, the DEM simulations show longer run-out in comparison to the MPM due to local destabilization at the flow front. At low input energies, a larger fraction of the energy is consumed in the destabilisation process, hence the amount energy available for flow is less. However, at higher input energy, where most of the energy is dissipated during the spreading phase, the run-out distance has a weak dependence on the distribution of velocity in the granular mass.

}, issn = {18777058}, doi = {10.1016/j.proeng.2017.01.032}, author = {Krishna Kumar and Kenichi Soga and Jean-Yves Delenne and Farhang Radja{\"\i}}, editor = {Rohe, A and Kenichi Soga and Teunissen, H} } @proceedings {337, title = {MPM with Frictional Contact for Application to Soft Particulate Materials}, journal = {PROCEEDINGS OF THE 1ST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON THE MATERIAL POINT METHOD (MPM 2017) Book Series: Procedia Engineering }, volume = {175}, year = {2017}, month = {Mar-23-2017}, pages = {141 - 147}, publisher = {Elsevier Ltd.}, address = {JAN 10-13, 2017, Delft, NETHERLANDS}, abstract = {Soft particle materials are composed of discrete particles that can undergo large deformations without rupture. Most food products, many powders, colloidal pastes, vesicles and biological cells are soft particle systems. In order to model such materials, we present an efficient numerical approach combining an implicit formulation of the Material Point Method (MPM) and Contact Dynamics (CD) method. The MPM deals with bulk variables of an individual particle by discretizing it as a collection of material points, whereas the CD allows for the treatment of frictional contacts between particles. This model is applied for the simulation of the uniaxial compression of 2D soft-particle packings. The compaction is a nonlinear process in which new contacts are formed between particles and the contact areas increase. The change of particle shapes allows these materials to reach high packing fraction. We find that the contact specific surface, the orientation anisotropy and the aspect ratio of particles increase as a function of the packing fraction but at different rates. We also evidence the effect of friction, which favors strong stress chains and thus the elongation of particles, leading to larger values of the orientation anisotropy and the aspect ratio at a given level of packing fraction as compared to a frictionless particle packing.

}, issn = {18777058}, doi = {10.1016/j.proeng.2017.01.044}, author = {Saeid Nezamabadi and Thanh Hai Nguyen and Jean-Yves Delenne and Julien Averseng and Frank, Xavier and Farhang Radja{\"\i}}, editor = {Rohe, A and Kenichi Soga and Teunissen, H} } @proceedings {343, title = {Evolution of particle size distributions in crushable granular materials}, journal = {3rd International Symposium on Geomechanics from Micro to Macro}, volume = {Geomechanics from Micro to Macro}, year = {2015}, month = {Feb-02-2015}, pages = {275 - 280}, publisher = {CRC Press}, address = {SEP 01-03-2014 Univ Cambridge, Cambridge, ENGLAND}, abstract = {By means of the contact dynamics method together with a particle fracture model, in which the particles are cohesive aggregates of irreducible polygonal fragments, we investigate the evolution of particle size distribution in the process of uniaxial compaction of granular materials. The case of single particle breakup under compressive stress is used to test the method and the influence of discretization (number of irreducible fragments). We show that the breaking threshold of the granular assembly scales with the internal cohesion of the particles but it depends also on the initial size distribution and irregularity of polygonal particle shapes. The evolution of size distribution proceeds by consecutive periods of intense particle crushing, characterized by local shattering instability, and periods of little breaking activity. Starting with either monodisperse or power-law distribution of particle sizes, the latter evolves towards a broad distribution of the fragmented particles with a nearly power-law distribution in the range of intermediate particle sizes. Interestingly, a finite number of large particles survive despite ongoing crushing process due to the more homogeneous distribution of forces in the presence of small fragmented particles filling the pores between larger particles.

}, isbn = {978-1-138-02707-7}, doi = {10.1201/b1739510.1201/b17395-48}, author = {Duc-Hanh Nguyen and Emilien Az{\'e}ma and Farhang Radja{\"\i} and Philippe Sornay}, editor = {Kenichi Soga and Krishna Kumar and Giovanna Biscontin and Kuo, Matthew} } @article {152, title = {Transient dynamics of a 2D granular pile}, journal = {The European Physical Journal E}, volume = {38}, year = {2015}, month = {May-26-2015}, pages = {Article Number: 47}, abstract = {We investigate by means of Contact Dynamics simulations the transient dynamics of a 2D granular pile set into motion by applying shear velocity during a short time interval to all particles. The spreading dynamics is directly controlled by the input energy whereas in recent studies of column collapse the dynamics scales with the initial potential energy of the column. As in column collapse, we observe a power-law dependence of the runout distance with respect to the input energy with nontrivial exponents. This suggests that the power-law behavior is a generic feature of granular dynamics, and the values of the exponents reflect the distribution of kinetic energy inside the material. We observe two regimes with different values of the exponents: the low-energy regime reflects the destabilization of the pile by the impact with a runout time independent of the input energy whereas the high-energy regime is governed by the input energy. We show that the evolution of the pile in the high-energy regime can be described by a characteristic decay time and the available energy after the pile is destabilized.

In this work, we present experimental and numerical results on the interaction between two localized fluidization cavities in an immersed granular packing. According to the gap between the two locally injected upward fluid flows, each fluidized cavity will evolve independently of the another, or conversely, the two cavities can interact with each other: they merge and eventually behave like a single cavity. Combined optical techniques are used for visualization of particle motion inside the granular media (Refractive Index-Matching between liquid and beads and Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence), the experimental results are compared to a two-dimensional simulation based on coupled Discrete Element and Lattice Boltzmann Methods (DEM-LBM).

}, isbn = {978-1-138-02707-7}, doi = {10.1201/b17395-286}, author = {Jeff Ngoma and Pierre Philippe and St{\'e}phane Bonelli and Jean-Yves Delenne and Farhang Radja{\"\i}}, editor = {Kenichi Soga and Krishna Kumar and Giovanna Biscontin and Kuo, Matthew} } @article {275, title = {Initiation of immersed granular avalanches}, journal = {Physical Review E}, volume = {89}, year = {2014}, month = {May-09-2014}, pages = {Article Number: 052203}, abstract = {By means of coupled molecular dynamics-computational fluid dynamics simulations, we analyze the initiation of avalanches in a granular bed of spherical particles immersed in a viscous fluid and inclined above its angle of repose. In quantitative agreement with experiments, we find that the bed is unstable for a packing fraction below 0.59 but is stabilized above this packing fraction by negative excess pore pressure induced by the effect of dilatancy. From detailed numerical data, we explore the time evolution of shear strain, packing fraction, excess pore pressures, and granular microstructure in this creeplike pressure redistribution regime, and we show that they scale excellently with a characteristic time extracted from a model based on the balance of granular stresses in the presence of a negative excess pressure and its interplay with dilatancy. The cumulative shear strain at failure is found to be ≃ 0.2, in close agreement with the experiments, irrespective of the initial packing fraction and inclination angle. Remarkably, the avalanche is triggered when dilatancy vanishes instantly as a result of fluctuations while the average dilatancy is still positive (expanding bed) with a packing fraction that declines with the initial packing fraction. Another nontrivial feature of this creeplike regime is that, in contrast to dry granular materials, the internal friction angle of the bed at failure is independent of dilatancy but depends on the inclination angle, leading therefore to a nonlinear dependence of the excess pore pressure on the inclination angle. We show that this behavior may be described in terms of the contact network anisotropy, which increases with a nearly constant connectivity and levels off at a value (critical state) that increases with the inclination angle. These features suggest that the behavior of immersed granular materials is controlled not only directly by hydrodynamic forces acting on the particles but also by the influence of the fluid on the granular microstructure.

}, issn = {1539-3755}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.89.052203}, author = {Patrick Mutabaruka and Jean-Yves Delenne and Kenichi Soga and Farhang Radja{\"\i}} } @proceedings {344, title = {Lattice Boltzmann modeling of liquid clusters in granular media}, journal = {3rd International Symposium on Geomechanics from Micro to Macro}, volume = {Geomechanics from Micro to Macro}, year = {2014}, month = {Dec-03-2014}, pages = {461 - 466}, publisher = {CRC Press}, address = {SEP 01-03-2014 Univ Cambridge, Cambridge, ENGLAND}, abstract = {We use capillary condensation simulated by a multiphase Lattice Boltzmann model as a means to generate homogeneous distributions of liquid clusters in 2D granular media. Liquid droplets condense from the vapor phase between and on the grains, and they transform into capillary bonds and liquid clusters as thermodynamic equilibrium is approached. As the amount of condensed liquid is increased, liquid clusters of increasing connectivity are formed and the distribution of liquid undergoes topological transitions until the whole pore space is filled by the liquid. We investigate the cluster statistics and local grain environments. From extensive simulations, we also obtain the mean Laplace pressure as a function of the amount of liquid, which is found to be quite similar to the well-known experimental retention curve in soil mechanics.

}, isbn = {978-1-138-02707-7}, doi = {10.1201/b1739510.1201/b17395-83}, author = {Jean-Yves Delenne and Vincent Richefeu and Farhang Radja{\"\i}}, editor = {Kenichi Soga and Krishna Kumar and Giovanna Biscontin and Kuo, Matthew} } @proceedings {251, title = {Mesoscale simulation of clay aggregate formation and mechanical properties}, journal = {3rd International Symposium on Geomechanics from Micro to Macro}, volume = {Geomechanics from Micro to Macro: Granular Matter}, year = {2014}, month = {Sep-2014}, pages = {539-544}, address = {SEP 01-03 2014 Univ Cambridge, Cambridge, ENGLAND}, abstract = {This paper proposes a novel methodology for understanding the meso-scale aggregation of clay platelets in water. We use Molecular Dynamics simulations using the CLAYFF force fields to represent the interactions between two layers of Wyoming montmorillonite (Na-smectite) in bulk water. The analyses are used to establish the potential of mean force at different spacings between the layers for edge-to-edge and face-to-face interactions. This is accomplished by finding the change in free energy as a function of the separation distance between the platelets using thermodynamic perturbation theory with a simple overlap sampling method. These nanoscale results are then used to calibrate the Gay\–Berne (GB) potential that represents each platelet as a single-site ellipsoidal body. A coarse-graining upscaling approach then uses the GB potentials and molecular dynamics to represent the meso-scale aggregation of clay platelets (at submicron length scale). Results from meso-scale simulations obtain the equilibrium/jamming configurations for mono-disperse clay platelets. The results show aggregation for a range of clay platelets dimensions and pressures with mean stack size ranging from 3 to 8 platelets. The particle assemblies become more ordered and exhibit more pronounced elastic anisotropy at higher confining pressures. The results are in good agreement with previously measured nano-indentation moduli over a wide range of clay packing densities.

}, issn = {1434-5021}, doi = {10.1007/s10035-016-0655-8}, author = {Ebrahimi, Davoud and Roland Jean-Marc Pellenq and Andrew J. Whittle}, editor = {Kenichi Soga and Krishna Kumar and Giovanna Biscontin} } @proceedings {342, title = {Modelling soft-particle materials}, journal = {3rd International Symposium on Geomechanics from Micro to Macro}, volume = {Geomechanics from Micro to Macro}, year = {2014}, month = {Aug-26-2014}, pages = {43-48}, publisher = {CRC Press}, address = {SEP 01-03-2014 Univ Cambridge, Cambridge, ENGLAND}, abstract = {Soft-particle materials include colloidal pastes, vesicles, many powders, microgels and suspensions. They share the common feature of being composed of particles that can undergo large deformations without rupture. For the simulation of such materials, we present a modelling approach based on an implicit formulation of the Material Point Method (MPM) interfaced with the Contact Dynamics (CD) method for the treatment of frictional contacts between particles. Each particle is discretized as a collection of material points. The information carried by the material points is projected onto a background mesh, where equations of motion are solved. The mesh solution is then used to update the material points. The implicit formulation of MPM allows for unconditional numerical stability and efficient coupling with implicit treatment of unilateral contacts and friction between the particles by the CD method. We use this model to analyse the compaction process of 2D soft-particle packings. The packing can reach high solid fractions by particle shape change and still flow plastically. The compaction is a nonlinear process in which new contacts are formed between particles and the contact areas increase. We find that the evolution of the packing fraction is a slow logarithmic function of the driving stress as a consequence of increasing contact area. We also evidence the effect of friction, which favours strong stress chains and thus the elongation of particles, leading to a larger packing fraction at a given level of compressive stress as compared to a frictionless particle packing.

}, url = {http://prodinra.inra.fr/record/370208}, author = {Saeid Nezamabadi and Farhang Radja{\"\i} and Julien Averseng}, editor = {Kenichi Soga and Krishna Kumar and Giovanna Biscontin} } @proceedings {345, title = {Shear flow of dense granular suspensions by computer simulations}, journal = {3rd International Symposium on Geomechanics from Micro to Macro}, volume = {Geomechanics from Micro to Macro}, year = {2014}, month = {Apr-2014}, pages = {467-472}, publisher = {CRC Press}, address = {SEP 01-03-2014 Univ Cambridge, Cambridge, ENGLAND}, abstract = {We analyze the shear flow of dense granular materials composed of circular particles immersed in a viscous fluid by means of Molecular Dynamics simulations interfaced with the Lattice Boltzmann Method. A homogeneous flow of the suspension is obtained through periodic boundary conditions and by directly applying a confining pressure on the granular phase and shearing the fluid phase. The stead-state rheology can be described in terms of effective friction coefficient and packing fraction of the suspension as a function of the ratio of viscous shear stress to confining pressure (frictional description), on one hand, and in terms of normal and shear viscosities of the suspension as a function of the packing fraction (viscous description), on the other hand. We show that the simulation data are consistent with both descriptions and in close agreement with the corresponding scaling laws observed in recent experiments.

}, url = {http://prodinra.inra.fr/record/369542}, author = {L. Amarsid and Patrick Mutabaruka and Jean-Yves Delenne}, editor = {Kenichi Soga and Krishna Kumar and Giovanna Biscontin} } @proceedings {341, title = {Granular plastic flow and fabric-based internal variables}, journal = {3rd International Symposium on Geomechanics from Micro to Macro}, volume = {Geomechanics from Micro to Macro}, year = {2013}, month = {May-2013}, pages = {3 - 19}, publisher = {CRC Press}, address = {SEP 01-03-2014 Univ Cambridge, Cambridge, ENGLAND}, abstract = {A microscopic approach to the quasi-static flow of granular materials requires

fabric parameters pertaining to the contact network. We show that the plastic behavior of

granular materials is correctly predicted with the approximation of perfectly rigid particles

interacting via dissipative contacts as simulated by means of the contact dynamics method.

We investigate the correlations between macroscopic variables (internal friction angle and ...