We use capillary condensation simulated by a multiphase Lattice Boltzmann model as a means to generate homogeneous distributions of liquid clusters in 2D granular media. Liquid droplets condense from the vapour phase between and on the grains, and they transform into capillary bonds and liquid clusters as thermodynamic equilibrium is approached. As the amount of condensed liquid is increased, liquid clusters of increasing connectivity are formed and the distribution of liquid undergoes topological transitions until the whole pore space is filled by the liquid. We investigate the cluster statistics and local grain environments. From extensive simulations, we also obtain the mean Laplace pressure as a function of the amount of liquid, which is found to be quite similar to the well-known experimental retention curve in soil mechanics. The tensile stress carried by the grains increases as a function of the amount of condensed liquid up to a peak in the funicular state beyond which the stress falls off as a result of pressure drop inside the merging clusters.

}, issn = {0266352X}, doi = {10.1016/j.compgeo.2016.02.017}, author = {Vincent Richefeu and Farhang Radja{\"\i} and Jean-Yves Delenne} } @article {156, title = {Liquid clustering and capillary pressure in granular media}, journal = {Journal of Fluid Mechanics}, volume = {762}, year = {2015}, month = {Jan-2015}, pages = {Article Number: R5}, abstract = {By means of extensive lattice Boltzmann simulations, we investigate the process of growth and coalescence of liquid clusters in a granular material as the amount of liquid increases. A homogeneous grain\–liquid mixture is obtained by means of capillary condensation, thus providing meaningful statistics on the liquid distribution inside the granular material. The tensile stress carried by the grains as a function of the amount of condensed liquid reveals four distinct states, with a peak stress occurring at the transition from a primary coalescence process, where the cohesive strength is carried mostly by the grains, to a secondary process governed by the increase of the liquid cluster volumes. We show that the evolution of capillary states is correctly captured by a simple model accounting for the competing effects of the Laplace pressure and grain\–liquid interface.

}, issn = {0022-1120}, doi = {10.1017/jfm.2014.676}, author = {Jean-Yves Delenne and Vincent Richefeu and Farhang Radja{\"\i}} } @proceedings {344, title = {Lattice Boltzmann modeling of liquid clusters in granular media}, journal = {3rd International Symposium on Geomechanics from Micro to Macro}, volume = {Geomechanics from Micro to Macro}, year = {2014}, month = {Dec-03-2014}, pages = {461 - 466}, publisher = {CRC Press}, address = {SEP 01-03-2014 Univ Cambridge, Cambridge, ENGLAND}, abstract = {We use capillary condensation simulated by a multiphase Lattice Boltzmann model as a means to generate homogeneous distributions of liquid clusters in 2D granular media. Liquid droplets condense from the vapor phase between and on the grains, and they transform into capillary bonds and liquid clusters as thermodynamic equilibrium is approached. As the amount of condensed liquid is increased, liquid clusters of increasing connectivity are formed and the distribution of liquid undergoes topological transitions until the whole pore space is filled by the liquid. We investigate the cluster statistics and local grain environments. From extensive simulations, we also obtain the mean Laplace pressure as a function of the amount of liquid, which is found to be quite similar to the well-known experimental retention curve in soil mechanics.

}, isbn = {978-1-138-02707-7}, doi = {10.1201/b1739510.1201/b17395-83}, author = {Jean-Yves Delenne and Vincent Richefeu and Farhang Radja{\"\i}}, editor = {Kenichi Soga and Krishna Kumar and Giovanna Biscontin and Kuo, Matthew} } @proceedings {367, title = {A benchmark for particle shape dependence}, journal = {7th International Conference on Micromechanics of Granular Media (Powders and Grains)}, volume = {Book Series: AIP Conference Proceedings POWDERS AND GRAINS 2013}, year = {2013}, month = {Jun-18-2013}, pages = {883-886}, publisher = {AIP}, address = {JUL 08-12 2013 Sydney, AUSTRALIA}, abstract = {Particle shape is a major parameter for the space-filling and strength properties of granular materials. For a systematic investigation of shape effect, a numerical benchmark test was set up within a collaborative group using different numerical methods and particles of various shape characteristics such as elongation, angularity and nonconvexity. Extensive 2D shear simulations were performed in this framework and the shear strength and packing fraction were compared for different shapes. We show that the results may be analyzed in terms of a low-order shape parameter \η describing the degree of distortion from a perfectly circular shape. In particular, the shear strength is an increasing function of \η with nearly the same trend for all shapes, the differences being of second order compared to \η. We also observe a nontrivial behavior of packing fraction which, for all our simulated shapes, increases with \η from the random close packing fraction for disks, reaches a peak considerably higher than that for disks, and subsequently declines as \η is further increased. Finally, the analysis of contact forces for the same value of \η leads to very similar statistics regardless of our specific particle shapes.

}, doi = {10.1063/1.4812073}, author = {Gael Combe and C{\'e}cile Nouguier-Lehon and Emilien Az{\'e}ma and Krzysztof Szarf and Baptiste Saint-Cyr and Marie Chaze and Farhang Radja{\"\i} and Pascal Villard and Jean-Yves Delenne and Vincent Richefeu and Philippe Sornay and Charles Voivret and CEGEO Group}, editor = {Yu, A and Dong, K and Yang, R} } @proceedings {369, title = {Capillary states of granular materials in the funicular state}, journal = {7th International Conference on Micromechanics of Granular Media (Powders and Grains)}, volume = {Book Series: AIP Conference Proceedings POWDERS AND GRAINS 2013}, year = {2013}, month = {Jun-18-2013}, pages = {1023-1026}, publisher = {AIP}, address = {JUL 08-12 2013 Sydney, AUSTRALIA}, abstract = {Using a multi-phase lattice Boltzmann model, we investigate the capillary states of a 2D granular packing gradually saturated by condensation from a homogeneously injected vapor phase. The internal stresses induced by surface tension and Laplace pressure are directly calculated from the forces acting on the grains with increasing amount of liquid. The evolution of cohesive strength with the amount of liquid reveals four different states reflecting the connectivity of the liquid phase and local grain environments. It increases in the pendular state, characterized by binary liquid bridges holding the grains together, and within the funicular state with an increasing number of liquid clusters connected to several grains. Beyond 40\% of saturation, the cohesive strength falls off due to a decreasing Laplace pressure of liquid clusters.

}, doi = {10.1063/1.4812108}, author = {Jean-Yves Delenne and Vincent Richefeu and Farhang Radja{\"\i}}, editor = {Yu, A and Dong, K and Yang, R} } @article {307, title = {Particle shape dependence in 2D granular media}, journal = {EPL (Europhysics Letters)}, volume = {98}, year = {2012}, month = {Apr-20-2012}, pages = {Article Number: 44008}, abstract = {Particle shape is a key to the space-filling and strength properties of granular matter. We consider a shape parameter