Structural damping, that is the presence of a velocity dependent dissipative term in the equation of motion, is rationalized as a thermalization process between a structure (here a beam) and an outside bath (understood in a broad sense as a system property). This is achieved via the introduction of the kinetic temperature of structures and formalized by means of an extended Lagrangian formulation of a structure in contact with an outside bath at a given temperature. Using the Nose-Hoover thermostat, the heat exchange rate between structure and bath is identified as a mass damping coefficient, which evolves in time in function of the kinetic energy/temperature history exhibited by the structure. By way of application to a simple beam structure subjected to eigen-vibrations and dynamic buckling, commonality and differences of the Nose-Hoover beam theory with constant mass damping models are shown, which permit a handshake between classical damping models and statistical mechanics-based thermalization models. The solid foundation of these thermalization models in statistical physics provides new insights into stability and instability for engineering structures. Specifically, since two systems are considered in (thermodynamic) equilibrium when they have the same temperature, we show in the case of dynamic buckling that a persistent steady-state difference in kinetic temperature between structure and bath is but indicative of the instability of the system. This shows that the kinetic temperature can serve as a structural order parameter to identify and comprehend failure of structures, possibly well beyond the elastic stability considered here.

VL - 85 UR - http://appliedmechanics.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org.libproxy.mit.edu/article.aspx?articleid=2680040 IS - 8 JO - J. Appl. Mech ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Thermodynamics, kinetics, and mechanics of cesium sorption in cement paste: A multiscale assessment JF - Physical Review Materials Y1 - 2018 A1 - Arayro, Jack A1 - Dufresne, Alice A1 - Zhou, Tingtao A1 - Katerina Ioannidou A1 - Franz-Josef Ulm A1 - Roland Jean-Marc Pellenq A1 - Béland, Laurent Karim KW - CALCIUM-SILICATE-HYDRATE; C-S-H; MOLECULAR-DYNAMICS; CRYSTAL-STRUCTURE; MONTE-CARLO; IMMOBILIZATION; RADIONUCLIDES; SIMULATIONS; RELAXATION; COLLOIDS AB -Cesium-137 is a common radioactive byproduct found in nuclear spent fuel. Given its 30 year half life, its interactions with potential storage materials-such as cement paste-is of crucial importance. In this paper, simulations are used to establish the interaction of calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H)-the mam binding phase of cement paste-with Cs at the nano- and mesoscale. Different C-S-H compositions are explored, including a range of Ca/Si ratios from 1.0 to 2.0. These calculations are based on a set of 150 atomistic models, which qualitatively and quantitatively reproduce a number of experimentally measured features of C-S-H-within limits intrinsic to the approximations imposed by classical molecular dynamics and the steps followed when building the models. A procedure where hydrated Ca2+ ions are swapped for Cs1+ ions shows that Cs adsorption in the C-S-H interlayer is preferred to Cs adsorption at the nanopore surface when Cs concentrations are lower than 0.19 Mol/kg. Interlayer sorption decreases as the Ca/Si ratio increases. The activation relaxation technique nouveau is used to access timescales out of the reach of traditional molecular dynamics (MD). It indicates that characteristic diffusion time for Cs1+ in the C-S-H interlayer is on the order of a few hours. Cs uptake in the interlayer has little impact on the elastic response of C-S-H. It leads to swelling of the C-S-H grams, but mesoscale calculations that access length scales out of the range of MD indicate that this leads to practically negligible expansive pressures for Cs concentrations relevant to nuclear waste repositories.

Upon loading, atomic networks can feature delayed irreversible relaxation. However, the effect of composition and structure on relaxation remains poorly understood. Herein, relying on accelerated molecular dynamics simulations and topological constraint theory, we investigate the relationship between atomic topology and stress-induced structural relaxation, by taking the example of creep deformations in calcium silicate hydrates (C─S─H), the binding phase of concrete. Under constant shear stress, C─S─H is found to feature delayed logarithmic shear deformations. We demonstrate that the propensity for relaxation is minimum for isostatic atomic networks, which are characterized by the simultaneous absence of floppy internal modes of relaxation and eigenstress. This suggests that topological nanoengineering could lead to the discovery of nonaging materials.

VL - 119 IS - 3 JO - Phys. Rev. Lett. ER -