|Modeling Granular Materials: Century-Long Research across Scales
|Year of Publication
|Radjaï F, Roux J-N , Daouadji A
|Journal of Engineering Mechanics
|Article Number: UNSP 04017002
Granular materials are the most recurrent form of solid-state matter on Earth. They challenge researchers and engineers in various fields not only because they occur with a broad variety of grain sizes, shapes and interactions in nature and industry, but also because they show a rich panoply of mechanical states. Despite this polymorphism, all these different types of soils, powders, granules, ores, pharmaceutical products, etc., are instances of the granular matter with the same least common denominator of being sandlike (psammoid in Greek), i.e., solid grains interacting via frictional contacts. This review describes milestone contributions to the field of granular materials since the early elastic-plastic models developed for soils in the 1950s. The research on granular materials has grown into a vast multidisciplinary field in the 1980s with increasing focus on the microstructure and owing to new experimental tools and discrete simulation methods. It turns out that the granular texture, particle-scale kinematics, and force transmission are far more complex than presumed in early micromechanical models of granular materials. Hence, constitutive relations cannot easily be derived from the particle-scale behavior although advanced continuum models have been developed to account for anisotropy, intermediate stress, and complex loading paths. The subtle elastic properties and origins of bulk friction will be discussed, as well as the effects of particle shape and size distributions. The review covers also recent developments in macroscopic modeling such as the thermomechanical approach, anisotropic critical state theory, nonlocal modeling approach, inertial flows, and material instabilities. Finally, a brief account is given of open issues and some new frontiers and challenges in the field.
|J. Eng. Mech.